Jul 28, 2020

Undue Influence, or Simply a Caring and Involved Loved One?

Stewart v. McLean, 2010 BCSC 64 (CanLII)

We are often contacted by clients who feel very strongly that a loved one, usually a parent or spouse, has been unduly influenced to make an estate plan that does not reflect their actual intentions. For example, a person may be unduly influenced in the making of their will, a transfer of property into joint ownership, or a large gift made during the person’s lifetime. Undue influence is a serious allegation, and there is a high threshold to establish it.

Undue influence certainly does happen. Elder abuse unfortunately happens. However, some clients’ concerns of undue influence arise simply from the fact that the alleged influencer was heavily involved in the life of the person alleged to have been influenced.

Consider the example of a mother and her children. As the mother ages, she requires more assistance. Perhaps she is no longer able to drive or has other mobility issues or physical limitations. It is not unusual for one child to step up and provide more assistance than the other siblings. This sibling may live closer to her mother, or her work schedule and other obligations may offer more flexibility such that she is able to provide a greater level of assistance. This assistance may include taking her mother to doctors’ appointments, or to the bank (where some bank accounts are transferred into joint names?), or to meetings with lawyers (where some changes are made to the mother’s will?). It will certainly mean that this child will have more face time with her mother than her siblings.

When the more-involved child ends up receiving greater benefits during the mother’s lifetime, or a larger share of the estate after the mother’s death, the other siblings may look back at all the time that their sister spent with their mother, and in some cases they will speculate or assume that their sister was influencing their mother. It is not uncommon for disappointed beneficiaries to look for some explanation for perceived unequal treatment or favoritism.

Stewart v. McLean 2010 BCSC 64 is a case that I always keep in mind as an example of conduct that does not reach the level of undue influence. In that case, the Court observed as follows:

[108] In general, the plaintiff’s allegations of undue influence are unfounded suspicions and are based on an unfair view of the relationship between Donald and their mother. At best, the plaintiff’s case is that Donald, by his presence in Victoria, his driving his mother to appointments, his working around her house, his visiting her frequently, and his receiving a benefit from his mother leads to the conclusion that he unduly influenced her.

And after observing that objectively viewed this was a loving and caring mother-son relationship in which the son did what most mothers would expect:

[110] There is no evidence that Donald dominated the Deceased. In fact, all of the evidence is to the contrary. The evidence consistently establishes that the Deceased was competent, “sharp”, and independent until her death. Certainly when it came to financial matters, she exercised a mind of her own. While she may have depended somewhat on Donald and his family due to her physical limitations, given her financial and intellectual independence, she could have made alternate arrangements.

Other cases have made similar observations. Some people require assistance in being mobile, and a family member is a logical person to provide this assistance. There must be something more to establish undue influence.

[This post by James Zaitsoff first appeared on the BC Estate Litigation Blog on July 28, 2020]